How to calculate fena
The Fractional Excretion of Sodium (FENA) is a calculation used by healthcare professionals to determine the cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). By evaluating the percentage of filtered sodium that is reabsorbed by the kidney and ultimately excreted in urine, physicians can differentiate between prerenal azotemia and intrinsic renal diseases such as acute tubular necrosis. In this article, we will explain the steps involved in calculating FENA and provide you with examples to help you better understand this useful diagnostic tool.
Definitions and Components
Before we dive into calculating FENA, it’s essential to familiarize yourself with some critical terms and components:
– Serum Creatinine (SCr): A blood marker used to evaluate kidney function.
– Urine Creatinine (UCr): The amount of creatinine in urine.
– Serum Sodium (SNa): The concentration of sodium ions in the blood.
– Urine Sodium (UNa): The concentration of sodium ions in urine.
FENA calculation is conducted using the following formula:
FENA (%) = [(Urine Sodium x Serum Creatinine) / (Serum Sodium x Urine Creatinine)] x 100
Follow these steps to perform the calculation:
1. Collect the four key measurements required for calculating FENA: SCr, UCr, SNa, and UNa. It’s crucial to have accurate values since they play an essential role in interpreting FENA results correctly.
2. Insert these values into the formula mentioned above. Multiply the value of UNa by SCr and divide it by the product of SNa multiplied by UCr.
3. Once you’ve performed this calculation, multiply your result by 100 to express the FENA value as a percentage.
Interpreting FENA Results
Interpreting FENA involves assessing various potential causes of acute kidney injury. Two crucial thresholds can help differentiate between prerenal azotemia and acute tubular necrosis (ATN):
– FENA <1%: This low value suggests prerenal azotemia, a condition in which decreased blood flow to the kidneys reduces their function. Prerenal azotemia is often caused by dehydration, heart failure, or excessive use of diuretics.
– FENA >2%: This elevated value is indicative of ATN. High FENA values indicate intrinsic renal damage caused by factors such as nephrotoxic drugs, ischemia, or other kidney diseases.
It’s essential to emphasize that calculating FENA is just one tool among many for determining the cause of an acute kidney injury. Other factors such as clinical history, lab results, and imaging should also be considered when making a diagnosis.
Calculating Fractional Excretion of Sodium is a helpful diagnostic approach that aids healthcare professionals in differentiating between prerenal azotemia and intrinsic renal diseases such as acute tubular necrosis. To calculate FENA, you need four key measurements: serum creatinine, urine creatinine, serum sodium, and urine sodium. By applying these values to the formula provided earlier in this article and interpreting the results correctly, physicians can make informed decisions to guide patient treatment and management.