What is a Three-Way Handshake?
A Three-Way Handshake refers to the communication protocol that is used between two nodes or devices to establish a reliable connection over a network. This handshake process is crucial because it ensures that the data transmission is secure and error-free.
When two nodes want to communicate, they use the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which is a connection-oriented protocol. TCP creates a virtual connection between the two nodes, and this connection needs to be established before any data can be transmitted. The Three-Way Handshake is the process used by TCP to establish this connection.
The Three-Way Handshake involves three steps. The first step is the SYN (synchronize) packet that is sent by the initiating node to the receiving node. This packet contains a random sequence number that is used to synchronize the sequence numbers of the two nodes. In addition, the packet also contains a value called the Initial Sequence Number (ISN), which is used to start the numbering sequence for the packets transmitted between the nodes.
The second step is the SYN-ACK (synchronize-acknowledge) packet, which is sent by the receiving node in response to the SYN packet. This packet contains an acknowledgement number that confirms the receipt of the SYN packet. The receiving node also sends its own SYN packet and a new sequence number to synchronize with the initiating node.
Finally, the initiating node sends an ACK (acknowledge) packet to the receiving node, confirming the receipt of the SYN-ACK packet. This ACK packet contains the acknowledgement number received from the SYN-ACK packet. Once the receiving node receives this ACK packet, the connection is considered established, and data transmission can begin.
The Three-Way Handshake provides a reliable way to establish a connection between two nodes. The use of sequence numbers and acknowledgement numbers ensures that the data transmission is accurate and error-free. In addition, the handshake process also prevents unauthorized access to the network by verifying the identity of the nodes.
In conclusion, the Three-Way Handshake is a crucial part of the TCP implementation that is used to establish a connection between two nodes over a network. The process involves a series of packets exchanged between the two nodes, each containing a sequence number and acknowledgement number that ensures secure and error-free data transmission.