# How to calculate z score with mean and standard deviation

**Introduction**

The z-score, also known as the standard score, is a widely used statistical concept that measures the relative distance between a data point and the mean of a dataset, expressed in terms of the number of standard deviations. By calculating the z-score, you can determine how far a specific data point deviates from the average. This information is especially useful when analyzing data from different datasets or distributions, as it allows you to make meaningful comparisons. In this article, we will discuss the steps to calculate z-scores using mean and standard deviation.

**Step 1: Understanding Z-Score Formula**

The formula for calculating the z-score for a data point (x) is:

**z = (x – μ) / σ**

where:

– z is the z-score

– x is the raw data point

– μ is the mean (average) of the dataset

– σ is the standard deviation

**Step 2: Calculate Mean (μ)**

First, you need to find out the mean of your dataset. The mean is simply calculated by adding all the data points in your dataset and then dividing by the total number of data points. The formula for calculating mean (μ) of a dataset is:

**μ = (∑x) / n**

where:

– ∑x is the sum of all data points

– n is the total number of data points

**Step 3: Calculate Standard Deviation (σ)**

Next, you need to calculate the standard deviation for your dataset. Standard deviation measures how spread out your data points are around the mean. It’s calculated using the following formula:

σ = sqrt( (∑(x – μ)² ) / n )

where:

– ∑(x – μ)² represents the sum of squared differences between each data point and mean

– n is again, total number of data points

– sqrt represents the square root

**Step 4: Calculate Z-Score (z)**

Once you have calculated the mean and standard deviation, you can proceed with the calculation of the z-score for individual data points. Plug in the respective numbers into the formula for the z-score:

**z = (x – μ) / σ**

Replace x with the data point you are assessing, μ with the mean, and σ with the standard deviation you calculated in steps 2 and 3.

**Conclusion**

By understanding and applying this method, you can calculate z-scores for any data point in your dataset. The z-score is a helpful tool for detecting outliers, standardizing data points, or comparing scores from different datasets. Remember that a z-score close to zero indicates that the data point is close to the average, while positive or negative values indicate that a data point is above or below average, respectively. Happy calculating!