How to calculate treasury stock
Treasury stock, also known as treasury shares or reacquired stock, refers to shares that have been bought back by the company that originally issued them. These shares are kept in the company’s treasury and can be reissued later or retired permanently. In this article, we will guide you through the step-by-step process of calculating treasury stock.
Step 1: Understanding Treasury Stock
Before calculating treasury stock, it is essential to understand what it is and why companies repurchase their own shares. Companies may buy back shares for various reasons, such as:
1. To improve financial ratios – Company’s earnings per share (EPS) and return on equity (ROE) can be enhanced by reducing the number of outstanding shares.
2. To prevent hostile takeovers – Buying back shares reduces the overall number of outstanding shares available in the market, making it harder for outsiders to accumulate a controlling stake.
3. To provide employee benefits – Treasury stock can be used for employee compensation plans or to cover stock options.
4. To utilize excess cash – Companies may buy back shares if they believe their stock is undervalued and have excess cash reserves.
Step 2: Identifying the Information Needed to Calculate Treasury Stock
To calculate treasury stock, you will need the following information:
1. Number of outstanding shares
2. Number of reacquired (treasury) shares
3. Price paid for each share repurchased
This information can be obtained from the company’s quarterly or annual financial statements or investor relations materials.
Step 3: Calculating Treasury Stock Using Price Paid per Share Method
The Price Paid per Share Method is one of the simplest ways to calculate treasury stock. Follow these steps:
1. Multiply the number of reacquired (treasury) shares by the price paid for each share.
2. The resulting value is the total cost of the treasury stock using the Price Paid per Share Method.
For example, if Company A repurchased 10,000 shares at an average price of $25 per share, the calculation would be:
10,000 (reacquired shares) x $25 (price paid per share) = $250,000 (treasury stock)
Step 4: Calculating Treasury Stock Using Average Price Method
The Average Price Method is another common method for calculating treasury stock. It involves calculating the average market price of outstanding shares during a specified period. Here are the steps:
1. Calculate the total market value of outstanding shares by multiplying the number of outstanding shares by their market price.
2. Determine the total market value of reacquired (treasury) shares by multiplying the number of treasury shares by their average repurchase price.
3. Subtract the total market value of treasury shares from the total market value of outstanding shares to find the treasury stock using the Average Price Method.
For instance, if Company A has 100,000 outstanding shares at an average market price of $30 each and reacquired 10,000 shares at an average price of $25 each, follow these calculations:
100,000 (outstanding shares) x $30 (market price per share) = $3,000,000 (total market value of outstanding shares)
10,000 (reacquired shares) x $25 (average repurchase price) = $250,000 (total market value of treasury shares)
$3,000,000 (total market value of outstanding shares) – $250,000 (total market value of treasury shares) = $2,750,000 (treasury stock using Average Price Method)
In conclusion, calculating treasury stock can be accomplished using different methods like the Price Paid per Share Method or Average Price