# How to calculate modular

**Introduction**

Modular arithmetic is a fundamental concept in mathematics and computer science that deals with the remainders obtained when dividing integers. It has a wide range of applications in cryptography, coding theory, and more. This article will serve as a comprehensive guide to understanding and calculating modular arithmetic.

**Basics of Modular Arithmetic**

Modular arithmetic, also known as clock arithmetic, operates within a fixed range of numbers defined by a modulus. When you perform an operation in modular arithmetic, the result is always confined within the range determined by the modulus.

For example, if you are working with the modulus 5 (mod 5), then the possible numbers you can have are between 0 and 4 (inclusive). Whenever you perform an operation that yields a result outside this range, you take the remainder between the result and the modulus to bring it back within the acceptable range.

**Notation**

In modular arithmetic, we use a special notation to express equivalence when working with remainders. The “mod” symbol ( ≡ ) is used to indicate that two numbers are equivalent modulo some number (the modulus). For example:

**a ≡ b (mod n)**

This means that ‘a’ and ‘b’ leave the same remainder after division by ‘n’, where ‘n’ is an integer known as the modulus.

**Basic Operations**

**1. Addition:** To calculate addition in modular arithmetic, simply add two numbers, then take their sum modulo the given modulus.

Example:

(2 + 3) mod 5 = 5 mod 5 = 0

(7 + 8) mod 5 = 15 mod 5 = 0

Both cases result in an answer of zero because their sum is exactly divisible by five.

**2. Subtraction:** Perform subtraction in the same way as addition – find the difference between two numbers, followed by taking their result modulo your desired modulus.

Example:

(5 – 2) mod 5 = 3 mod 5 = 3

(7 – 11) mod 6 = -4 mod 6 = 2

**3. Multiplication:** Multiply two numbers and take the product’s remainder when divided by your chosen modulus.

Example:

(3 * 4) mod 5 = 12 mod 5 = 2

(7 * 8) mod 6 = 56 mod 6 = 2

**4. Division:** Division is slightly more complicated, involving modular inverses to find the quotient between two numbers. A number ‘a’ and its modular inverse ‘b’ with respect to a given modulus ‘n’ satisfy this equation:

a * b ≡ 1 (mod n)

To divide, you must first compute the modular inverse of a number, then multiply it by the dividend in modulo arithmetic.

Example:

Calculate (24 / 8) mod 13:

First, find the modular inverse of 8 (mod 13). In this case, it’s nine since:

8 * 9 ≡1 (mod13)

Next, multiply the dividend by the modular inverse:

24 * (9) ≡ (216) ≡3 (mod13)

So, (24/8) mod13 equals three.

**Conclusion**

Understanding and calculating modular arithmetic is an essential skill for many mathematical and computational tasks. Make sure you’re familiar with these concepts; then, you’ll be on your way to solving complex problems with ease. Take some time to practice calculations using different modulus values to increase proficiency in this subject area.