# How to Calculate Sample Covariance

Sample covariance is a statistical measure used to gauge the relationship between two variables in a dataset. When analyzing data, it is vital to understand how variables are related because it can help make predictions or derive meaningful insights. In this article, we’ll walk you through the process of calculating sample covariance step-by-step.

**What is Sample Covariance?**

Sample covariance reflects the degree to which two variables in a dataset vary together. It indicates if an increase in one variable corresponds with an increase or decrease in the other variable. While correlation coefficients measure the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables, sample covariance measures their joint variability.

**Here’s how to calculate sample covariance:**

**Step 1: Gather Your Data**

First, you’ll need your data set, which should include observations for two variables (X and Y).

Example:

X: [23, 45, 32, 54]

Y: [80, 102, 83, 112]

In this example dataset, we have four observations for each variable (X and Y).

**Step 2: Calculate Means**

Next, calculate the mean (average) of each variable (X and Y). Add up all values of each variable and then divide by the total number of observations.

Mean of X = (23 + 45 + 32 + 54) / 4 = 154 / 4 = 38.5

Mean of Y = (80 + 102 + 83 +112) /4 =377 /4= 94.25

**Step 3: Subtract Mean from Each Observation**

Subtract the mean from each observation in your respective X and Y datasets.

**For X:**

(23 – 38.5) = -15.5

(45 – 38.5) = +6.5

(32 -38.5) = -6.5

(54 – 38.5) = +15.5

**For Y:**

(80 – 94.25) = -14.25

(102 – 94.25) = +7.75

(83 – 94.25) = -11.25

+(112 – 94.25) = +17.75

**Step 4: Multiply the Differences**

Now, multiply the differences obtained in step 3 to find the product of the differences for each observation.

(-15.5 x -14.25) =220.625

(6.5 x 7.75 )=50.375

(-6.5 x -11.25)=73.125

(15.x 17.75)=275.625

**Step 5: Calculate Sample Covariance**

Finally, add up the products of the differences and divide it by n-1, where n is the total number of observations.

Sample Covariance (Sxy) = (220.625 + 50.375 +73.125+275.625)/3=619/re=206 _33

The sample covariance for the given data set (X and Y)=206 Sticks;:|

**Conclusion**

Calculating sample covariance allows you to measure how two variables are related in a dataset by following this step-by-step-guide, -you should now have a better understanding of how to calculate sample covariance Remember that a positive value indicates that beide variables move in tandem while a negative value shows that they move in opposite directions.