# How calculate log

**Introduction**

Logarithms, often referred to as “logs,” are a fundamental concept in mathematics that allow us to express the relationships between exponential quantities. Logarithms are especially useful in simplifying complex calculations and have numerous applications in fields such as science, engineering, and finance. In this article, we will discuss the basics of logarithms, their properties, and how to calculate them.

**1. Understanding Logarithms**

A logarithm is the inverse operation of exponentiation. It answers the question, “To what power should a given number (called the base) be raised to obtain another number?” The logarithm of a number x with respect to a base b is denoted as log_b(x), where b > 0 and b ≠ 1.

**For example, if you have 2^3 = 8, the logarithm would ask**: “What power do you need to raise 2 by to get 8?” In this case, log_2(8) = 3.

**2. Logarithm Properties**

There are several crucial properties of logarithms that aid us in calculating them:

**a) log_b(1) = 0:** When the logarithm of 1 is taken with any base, the answer will always be 0.

**b) log_b(b) = 1**: When the logarithm of a number is taken with the same base, the result will be 1.

**c) log_b(x*y) = log_b(x) + log_b(y):** The product rule states that the logarithm of a product is equal to the sum of the individual logarithms.

**d) log_b(x/y) = log_b(x) – log_b(y):** The quotient rule states that the logarithm of a quotient is equal to the difference between individual logarithms.

**e) log_b(x^n) = n*log_b(x):** The power rule states that the logarithm of an exponent is equal to the product of that exponent and the logarithm.

**3. Calculating Logarithms**

To calculate logarithms, you can follow these steps:

a) Determine the base and the number: n = log_b(x)

b) Use the properties of logarithms to simplify the expression.

c) Utilize a calculator or logarithm table if necessary.

For example, calculating log_2(32):

**Step 1:** Identify the base and number: n = log_2(32)

**Step 2:** Apply logarithm properties: Since 32 equals 2^5, we have log_2(2^5).

**Step 3:** Use the power rule property: log_2(2^5) = 5*log_2(2) which becomes 5*(1) = 5.

Therefore, log_2(32) = 5.

**4. Common Logarithms**

Two bases are commonly used in logarithms – base 10 (also called common logarithm) and base e (natural logarithm). The common logarithm is denoted as log(x), while the natural logarithm is denoted as ln(x).

Using a calculator, you can easily find the value of log_both_(x). For example, to evaluate log_10(100), you can simply plug in these values into your calculator and get the result of 2. Similarly, for ln(e^3), input this expression into a calculator or use a natural logarithm table to determine that the answer is 3.

**Conclusion**

Logarithms are a powerful mathematical tool that simplifies complex calculations by expressing relationships between exponential quantities. Understanding basic logarithm properties and mastering their computation techniques are essential for successfully navigating many mathematical applications.